Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Essay Globalization Consumerism And Sustainable Development Environmental Sciences Essay

Essay Globalization Consumerism And Sustainable Development Environmental Sciences Essay Sustainable development has been a globally paradigm in different areas. Citizens lifestyle has an important relationship with the sustainability of a city. In living environment area, world-wide experts have adopted the Agenda 21 and tried to find the appropriate way to achieve a sustainable living lifestyle. According to Agenda 21, the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances. However, as the global population increasing, how to balance the relationship between resources supply and demand is still a research question. For communities and individuals, special attention should be paid to the demand for natural resources generated by unsustainable consumption and to the efficient use of those resources consistent with the goal of minimizing depletion and reducing pollution. In other word s, the communities and individuals should look for an appropriate living style towards achieving sustainable goal. Although government has been put much efforts to encourage people to do some reduction of pollution, reduction of energy consumption, and waste recycling, actually there is still a long distance to reach the goal of sustainability, and there should be a series of fundamentally changes for individuals to adopt to pursue a green, sustainable society. Globalization Globalization means quite different things to different people. In general, globalization is a process that promotes world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources. It includes economic globalization, social cultural globalization, and environmental globalization. In recent decades, the world markets have become increasingly integrated. As Lindert and Williamson 2011 pointed out, world market integration is not a new phenomenon, but it has steadily increased since the 1820s if we exclude the period between the two World Wars. A long-term correlation between the globalization of international markets and environmental degradation is quite obviously. The globalization of markets also brought about the globalization of environmental problems. Global climate change, ozone layer, reduction of biodiversity, over consumption of natural resources, desertification are all global environmental degradation brought after the economic globalization. The industrial revolution use large am ount of natural resources as materials in the process, as well as the deterioration of their quality as a consequence of pollution. The acceleration of economic growth led to the increasing of world population that promoted the deterioration of environment. Lifestyle and sustainability Concept of sustainable development The concept of sustainability means that something is maintained for a period of long time. The concept of sustainable development came out of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment in 1972.() Since the publication of the UN Brundtland Commission report  Our Common Future  in 1987, the concept of sustainability has become associated with the integration of economic, social, and environmental development to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The conference was held to let all nations agree to act to reduce pollution together to share the resources equally. Since 1972, it has become clear that what we do has an impact on the environment, from the climate change, desertification, and the destruction of forests to the disappearance of species. By introducing the word sustainable, the discussion on environmental development got a social and economic dimension, especially by the inclusion of the Nort h- South dialogue and discussion of the rights of future generations. This finally led to the world community holding the United Nations Convention on Education and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992 where the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Framework on Climate Change, the Rio Declaration and 38 of the 40 chapters of Agenda 21 were agreed. The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was set up to review progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and other UNCED documents. The Commission meets every year and more than 1,000 N.G.Os are accredited to participate in the Commissions work. Concept of lifestyle The concept of lifestyle comes from social science and refers to a bundle of practices or ways of behaving that are meaningful for individual as well for the community. Lifestyle includes different ways of socializing with others and different types of consumption of everything, from houses to clothes, food, and leisure time activities. Lifestyle could reflect individuals attitude and values and at the same time signals these to others through visible, or conspicuous, consumption. Sustainable lifestyle can thus be defined as bundles of practices that are tied together by attitudes related to sustainable development, or as ways of living that in practice lead to sustainable development. In 1992 at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro, there was an international agreement on promoting sustainable development and thus also promoting sustainable lifestyle. Following the line of the Brundtland report, the conference reached consensus on the so-called Agenda 21 programme, which contains detailed guidelines and objectives, in a nonlegally binding language, and advice on how NGOs, citizens, and other actors can be involved in the process. The slogan was act local -think global and during the 1990s Local Agenda activities were initiated in many countries by both authorities and NGOs. In 2007-08 such initiatives received renewed interest, with global climate being high on the political agenda. Local Agenda 21 was no longer a catchword, though the concept of sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles was then used together with climate discussions. The processes of Local Agenda 21 build on the idea that changes must come from below, from changes in the everyday life of ordinary consumers. Current lifestyle When talking about living lifestyle, tobacco use, poor nutrition, obesity, elevated stress, and suboptimal sleep will come into ones mind, these are major contributors to the pandemic of lifestyle-related conditions, morbidity, and premature death (E dean) Preventable lifestyle-related conditions such as ischemic heart disease, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema (largely smoking related), hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers, are not only leading causes of disability and premature death in high-income countries, but increasingly in middle- and low-income countries.  (stop) Compared to the impact of environment brought from lifestyle, the bad lifestyle seems to have much effect on individuals health. However, from long-term sight, bad lifestyle will bring waste of resources, pollution of environment and at last hinder the development of society. When talking about the lifestyle related to consumerism, green consumerism should be advocated. What is green consumerism? In short, who and why buy. current global levels of domestic energy consumption and waste production have been acknowledges as important contribution to detrimental environmental change (United Nations 1998) Political and academic interest in this component of sustainable development implementation has stimulated debates in post-industrial nations concerning the social practices of contemporary consumerism (Macnaghten and Urry 1998) and how we will live in the future (De Young 1993) n response there has been a call for the development of national policies and strategies to encourage changes in consumption patterns (UNCED 1992:64). One approach has been the promotion of environmentally-friendly lifestyles which often take the form of media or community campaigns (for further analysis see Hobson 2001). These campaigns encourage individuals not only to decrease the amount consumed, but also to alter the nature of goods consumed (lUCN/UNEP/WWF 1991; Librova 1999). Changing Lifestyles Towards Sustainability From a policy perspective, it is relevant to discuss how to promote more sustainable lifestyles. Changes can be initiated from the bottom-up, where people experiment with changing lifestyles, or from the top-down, where authorities make initiatives to promote changing lifestyles. Authorities can promote changes by political initiatives such as economic incentives or green taxes and through information and labeling of green products and campaigns focusing on changing attitudes. Furthermore, authorities can focus on establishing the physical infrastructure which supports sustainable lifestyles: public transportation, renewable energy production, recycling waste system, and so on. What follows describes, first, the people who have made radical changes to their lifestyles and, second, evaluations on initiatives to get ordinary people to change their lifestyle in a more sustainable direction. In the last couple of decades, some citizens have chosen more radical lifestyle changes and have joined so-called eco-villages. Some of the catchwords of this approach are closed cycles and self-sufficiency: water and waste should be recycled, energy locally produced from renewable resources, and the technologies organised in neighborhoods to strengthen and revitalize local social life. The ecological vision is followed by the social vision of a holistic everyday life a life that is not split between work, family, and home. In this sense, the eco-villages follow in the footsteps of the collectivist movement of the 1960s and 1970s and are a reaction against the lifestyle in detached suburban houses. Furthermore, in some of the eco-villages there is a spiritual relation with nature and an ethical concern for future generations. The people deciding to build and live in these eco-villages thus establish other physical, social, and cultural structures around their everyday life as part o f living a sustainable lifestyle. In the environmental debate, it has been questioned to what extent this type of experiment is part of a broader solution to sustainable development or whether these structures are only isolated pockets. Some of the alternative technological solutions, such as solar heating or wind power, had their hesitant first beginnings in these alternative environments. However, some of the eco-villages and other grassroots experiments had such alternative visual expressions that might have frightened the not-so-dedicated others from choosing sustainable lifestyles. This raises the question of whether sustainable lifestyles are only for those who want to live an alternative life or whether they should be mainstreamed and made available for a broader audience. In the twenty-first century, however, this debate might seem less topical, as grassroots approaches and more mainstream approaches to sustainable lifestyles appear to converge Many public initiatives have tried to persuade citizens to live a more sustainable life, and there are also examples of studies following the extent to which these types of efforts have an effect. In general, social science approaches dealing with these issues can be divided into psychological and sociological approaches. As an example of the psychological approach, a study performed by Abrahamse and others in the Netherlands followed the effects of an Internet-based tool that used a combination of tailored information, goal setting, and feedback on households direct and indirect energy consumption. An evaluation after 5 months showed that households gained a significant direct energy saving of 5%, whereas there was no measurable effect on indirect energy consumption. It is thus possible to document a small but significant relation between knowledge and action. From a sociological approach, the UK campaign Action at home, which is part of the Global Action Plan that originally developed in the United States during the late 1980s, has been evaluated by Hobson, and this evaluation questions the simple relation between knowledge and change of behavior. The Action at home campaign was a 6-month voluntary programme where households were provided with information, support, and feedback in a local setting enabling local support and networking between participants. An evaluation based on qualitative interviews suggests rethinking the ideas on information, barriers, and behavioural change. Information should be seen as a much more constructivist approach, where people use and develop arguments through conversations with others, rather than by receiving objective knowledge. The focus should be on the whole array of social structures sustaining specific behaviors, rather than on only barriers to action, and finally the understanding of behavioral chan ge should rather focus on how debate can bring unnoticed routines that are never consciously thought of. Though there are disagreements in the understanding of behavior and the role of information between the social and the psychological approach, it is possible to draw some general recommendations on how to best persuade people to change to a more sustainable lifestyle: Communication should be as specific and personalized as possible, and information should be as adjusted to the lifestyle of the citizens as possible, thereby making the advice meaningful and useful for the citizens attitudes and practices. With climate change high on the political agenda, especially before the climate summit conference in Copenhagen in 2009, sustainable lifestyles have gained renewed interest among the public, politicians, and academics. Will this interest be a short bobble followed by resignation? Will it be the start of mainstreaming sustainable lifestyles so they spread and become the norm? Or, will there continue to be a development fuelled by the tension between initiatives by different actors? Sustainability is a contested concept, and developments in the structures and practices of everyday life continue to change and thus provide new challenges for what a sustainable lifestyle is or should be. In the future, there is also a need to continue experimenting, debating, and developing new approaches to sustainable lifestyles Linking lifestyle and climate change literature The concept of lifestyle in the behavioural sciences has been studied in connection with social class [31,81,64 -66,86,87,47 ], culture-specific consumption patterns [ 22,30,52,79 ] as well as individual choice [25,7,6 ]. Social theorists have described how the disappearance of norms and economic limitations, mass consumption and the market have gradually removed restrictions and made the individual lifestyle a more appropriate way to describe differences in action, world views and consump-tion. Research suggests that the consumption behavior of individuals constitute a more or less coherent con-sumption pattern because individual tastes and prefer-ences conform to socially determined structures [13,19]. The fact that conspicuous consumption [17,77] is seen as a status symbol of wealthy people makes the less afflu-ent aspire to emulate this lifestyle [ 5 ]. Individuals use consumer goods to preserve their position in the social hierarchy [ 12]. A convergence of lifestyles has been accelerated by homogenisation in the human system over time and space due to the globalisation of the built environment, occupations, industry, trade and advertis-ing. Lifestyle is also described in an operational sense through the correlation between the level and pattern of consumption and socio-economic and demographic parameters such as age, family size, occupation, income, gender, education and ethnicity. Consequent energy and emission outcomes vary widely ( Table 1) calling for more inclusive action strategy to avoid leakages. The focus of change needs to be on the hotspots and patterns of energy consumption. Attempts to change energy consumption pattern are likely to lead to a change in energy consump-tion behaviour that make up the complete pattern. In the energy literature in the late 1980s, the energy researchers introduced the lifestyle concept into the study of energy consumption and established a positive correlation be-tween better lifestyle and high-energy consumption for both households and individuals. Kaya identity [34] has been used to show how both the individual and aggregate consumption pattern are an important driver of emission level along with the technology choice. Recent literature Suggestion

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Copyright Law in United Arab Emirates

Copyright Law in United Arab Emirates Introduction Media Law is a branch of law that concerns governance of the telecommunications industry, broadcasting, advertising, the entertainment industry, censorship, and internet and online services inter alia. There are several branches of this law that help maintain an effective control over different media. An important aspect of media law is the Copyright law. Protection of a person’s, be it a natural person or a legal person, creative expression can be called as copyright. It usually pertains to the protection of intellectual property (Forstenlechner, Mellahi, 2011). Discussion Legal copyright issues can come to light with respect to several original works including trademarks for various brands, patents for technologies or processes involved in media. Among several issues, licensing occupies a huge space in this regard as illegitimate distribution of copyrighted works has become exceedingly persistent. Although, peer-to-peer sharing of technologies or spreading of online streams for audio/visual content is extremely beneficial to disseminate news of a new creativity in the market, it is incredibly anti profit for TV, movie and music industry. For free consumption it works like a blessing, for the legal networks, it is nothing short of a curse (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). This report describes the provisions of copyright laws in the United Arab Emirates. Copyright Law in the UAE as per Federal Law No. 7 of 2002, as Amended in 2006 The following is a summary of the important aspects of the copyright law as followed in UAE. Items forming part of the copyright law Chapter one, article two: Under this law, the losses of authors and other concerning right holders are covered if their violation occurs within the boundaries of the UAE (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Certain works that can be compensated for, if violated, are mentioned below: Literature including books, booklets, articles, computer software, applications and databases, lectures, speeches, sermons, plays, musicals and pantomimes, musicals both accompanied and unaccompanied by dialogue, audio visual work, architectural work and plans, work involving drawing, painting, sculpturing, etching, lithography, screen printing, relief and intaglio prints and other similar works of fine art, photographic work and the like, works of applied art and plastic art, charts, maps, plans, 3-D modeling for geographical and topographical applications and architectural designs, derivative works etc (Forstenlechner, Mellahi, 2011). Items not forming part of the copyright law This copyright shall not only provide coverage of losses against violation in respect of title of the work but also in case of the use of the concept of the work by someone not authorized for (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Article three of the chapter one of the copyright laws in UAE further explains that ideas, procedures, business methodologies, mathematical algorithms and basic principles and facts are not covered under this law but only their way of presentation or expressions are covered. That means, that one two persons can use the same idea provided both their presentation differs. A very common example of such a thing can be the design of a water cooler and that of a water dispenser. Both have the same idea but both have utterly varied designs (Hassan, 2009). Copyright also does not provide coverage to any of the following: 1. Official documents, regardless of what is their source or the language they were designed for, for instance, provisions of law, regulations, decisions, international conventions, court judgments, arbitrators’ awards and decisions issued with concern to judicial matters by administrative committees (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). 2. News of current events and issues falling under the spectrum of media coverage. 3. Works that are now owned by the public, such as books, magazines, novels etc. Regardless, the items contained in paragraphs one, two and three of this article can be covered if some sort of innovation has been involved in the way these works have been sequenced or collected. Retention rights of the author and his successor Article five of chapter two explains that the author and his general successors get perpetual and inalienable rights to the work in question (Hassan, 2009). These rights include: 1. The right for publication for the first ever time. That means that no one can publish before the first author. 2. The right of paternity/ attribution to receive credit as the author. A patent is automatically raised for the author. 3. The right of integrity for objection to belittling treatment of a work including alteration of a copyright work that alters the work negatively or impacts the honor or reputation of the author. 4. In the light of newly made discoveries, the right to remove a work from circulation that provides sufficient reason for doing so (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Effect of translation on copyright Article six of chapter two explains that alteration in the work by translating it into another language can also be a base for violation of copyright laws at the places where the translator does not point out specifically where the alterations were made or if these alterations affect the honor or image of the author (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Right of author, successor of author or copyright holder to license use of the work Chapter two, article seven describes the rights of the author and that of his successors. Exclusively, the author and his general successors or whoever the copyright holder may be, shall have the right to license any utilization of the said work. This can be done via any of the following channels particularly reproduction including electronic loading and storage, any form of representation, broadcasting or re-broadcasting, public performance or broadcasting, translation, modification, alteration, leasing, lending or any form of publication including access through computer or information networks, communication networks or other means (Hassan, 2009). Transfer of economic rights of the work Article nine of chapter two further explains that the economic rights of the work can be assigned by the author or his successor to a third party whether it is a natural or a legal person. This assignment must be in black and white and clearly refer to the right in question, and the objective, period and place of the assignment must also be referenced. And the rights that have not been transferred explicitly, in writing, shall be retained by the author (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). The author shall respecting the moral rights of the person to whom he has assigned the right, shall not obstruct any use of the same. Quid pro quo Article ten of chapter two explains that the author, keeping in mind quid pro quo, shall do the assignment of rights in exchange for monetary compensation based on the pro rata share of the revenue generated from the consequential utilization of the work. The author has also been allowed to add another sum of money to it or can also use both of these methods (Hassan, 2009). Disposal of the work shall not be considered as transfer of right Article thirteen of chapter two explains that the disposal of the author’s work by him shall not count as a transfer of right to use it, but only as a transfer of right to ownership unless the author has agreed for any such clause (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). International case laws featuring infringement of copyright laws The following legal issues arose due to infringement of copyright laws. These followed opinions and judgments by the laws of their respective countries or states (Hassan, 2009). Case one Brown v. Bandai America, Inc., et al., 2002 WL 1285265 (N.D. Tex. June 4, 2002) Plaintiff Brown owns the copyright for cartoon drawings called Bone Masters. In the Brown’s version of it, the cartoons are a unique figure that can add bones on the outside of their small structures, and can further turn into dinosaurs. Sunrise and Bandai are the defendants. They are a Japanese company (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). They make and sell toy action figures called Dinozaurs. The Dinozaurs exhibit features much similar to Brown’s characters inclusive of dinosaur-like bones on their head, legs, arms and torsos. The Fox and the Children’s Network broadcasted the character of Dinozaurs from July to November 2000. Therefore, the plaintiff filed a copyright infringement case against Bandai and later made the addition of Sunrise and Fox as defendants in the federal court of Dallas, Texas. Case two United States vs. Elcom, Ltd., etc., et al., 203 F.Supp. 2d 1111 (N.D. Cal. 2002) Elcom Ltd is a Russian software company that violated the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) by fooling its anti circumvention defenses to bring and sell a computer program that removed restrictions from Adobe Acrobat PDF files and made formatting possible for the Adobe ebook Reader Programs. Such a program had been developed to accommodate ebook publishers in their respective distributions but it had been exploited by Elcom. United States was the plaintiff here with Elcom being the defendant (Hassan, 2009). UAE case laws featuring infringement of copyright laws Case one Sturdza vs. United Arab Emirates, et al., 281 F.3d 1287 (D.C. Cir. 2002) For a new embassy of the UAE in Washington D.C a competition was held for architects where plaintiff Sturdza submitted a design. The plaintiff was told by the defendant that her design had won the competition and that she was going to get the contract for the embassy. However, later the UAE gave the contract to another architect Demetriou (Samuelson, Wheatland, 2009). Demetriou’s design had close resemblance with that of the plaintiff’s. Using Demetrious design, the UAE began building its new embassy. The plaintiff filed a case against the UAE and Demetriou in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, blaming the UAE, inter alia, for copyright infringement. Sturdza’s copyright infringement claim, along with other claims, was dismissed by the court. However, the court revoked the dismissal of the copyright infringement claim as the jury found profound similarities between the two designs (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Case two Dubai which is a renowned city of the UAE has now been highlighted for copyright infringement cases by the world’s largest networking website, Facebook. A hairdresser in Dubai’s Discovery Gardens seems to have adopted Facebook’s logo and has a name quite similar to that of the famous and large website. It has even used the same color scheme for its logo. In fact, the font of the logo is also identical to Facebook (Samuelson, Wheatland, 2009). This case was brought into light by International Media Houses. Several small time companies take the liberty to adopt logos or trademarks of larger companies in the hopes to draw their customers, quite forgetting that in doing so they are committing a breach of law (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Case three Another case that had been reported by Emirates 24|7 pertained to a clothing store in Dubai that had adopted the name of Europe’s large retailer Primark. After realizing that the fact that they had committed a breach of law, they altered their name to ‘Mercato’ (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). Case four Likewise, a grocery store in Dubai had unintentionally named itself after United Kingdom’s retail giant Tesco. Apparently, they had also not realized their crime. Case five On another note, an Emirati internet pirate was arrested by the local authorities in Abu Dhabi. He had the charge of downloading and distributing TV content on free online website. By the time he was caught, he was penalized was one million US dollars. He had been apprehended on 802 counts of piracy breaches (Samuelson, Wheatland, 2009). He was caught by a complaint filed by the Arabian Anti-Piracy Alliance (AAA) with pay-TV network OSN. He made a clear confession of willingly establishing a website where free users could download the subscription only content of the OSN network. His total penalty amounted up to $962400 (Samuelson, Wheatland, 2009). Case six The month before apprehension of this pirate, another one had been convicted for establishing a website where altered Xbox 360 consoles were offered and pirated Xbox 360 games were also traded (Daghfous, Barkhi, 2009). As per the law, the pirate was sentenced to a three month jail on the charge of copyright infringement and illegitimate alterations in Xbox 360 consoles by the court of first instance in Dubai (Samuelson, Wheatland, 2009). Conclusion According to the CEO of AAA these current apprehensions express the efficiency of the government coordinated operations against profit makers from internet sharing websites. However, the International Intellectual Property Alliance believes differently. Keeping in view the above cases, it understands that UAE be put back on the Special 301 Watch List in 2014. References Daghfous, A., Barkhi, R. (2009). The strategic management of information technology in UAE hotels: An exploratory study of TQM, SCM, and CRM implementations.Technovation,29(9), 588-595. Retrieved from: Forstenlechner, I., Mellahi, K. (2011). Gaining legitimacy through hiring local workforce at a premium: the case of MNEs in the United Arab Emirates.Journal of World Business,46(4), 455-461. Retrieved from: Hassan, M. K. (2009). UAE corporations-specific characteristics and level of risk disclosure.Managerial Auditing Journal,24(7), 668-687. Retrieved from: Samuelson, P., Wheatland, T. (2009). Statutory damages in copyright law: A remedy in need of reform.Wm. Mary L. Rev.,51, 439. Retrieved from:

Monday, August 19, 2019

All Quiet On The Western Front Themes :: essays research papers

1) The Destructiveness of War A major theme, not only on lives and property, but also on the human spirit. Men are subject to physical torment-eyes are blinded, limbs are blown off, blood flows everywhere, and innocent men die in agony. When soldiers take shelter in the graveyard, bombs explode all around them, the living hide in coffins and the dead are thrown from their graves. The destructive power is so great that even the fundamental differences between life and death become blurred. The impact of war on the spirit is subtle. They find themselves less able to returrn to civilian life- friends die all around them. 2) The Lost Generation This theme is an offshoot of the destructiveness of war. Paul's generation grew up too fast, its perceptins of life grossly distorted by the horror or war. The youthful idealism that might someday have blossomed into constructive maturity has been nipped in the bud. Unlike earlier generations, Paul can never again hope to find comfort and inspiration in the hollow rhetoric of politicians and generals. The war has shattered their illusions. Their innocence is gone, and only in aimless skepticism is left to fill the void. 3) Comraderie The theme of comraderie occurs constantly in the novel. The comraderie that exists in Paul's company keeps them from being driven insane by the horrors all around them. In a sense, the comraderie among Paul's friends can be seen as a last desperate clinging to the innocence of youth. These young men were transported almost directly to the battlefield from the schoolyard. The adolescent pranks of Paul and his classmates can be seen in their "adult" behavior, as in their attack on Himmelstoss. If the social responses of Paul adn his friends seem at time childish, it is essential to remember that these are young men whose experience of life took them directly to the barracks from the classroom. If they seem immature, it may be because they weren't given the chance to grow up normally. The best example of this theme os when Kat and Paul shared their roasted goose with Kropp and Tjaden. They were taking care of each other. 4) Alienation The theme of alienation develops as the novel progresses. At first, Paul and his friends still behave as if their lives will someday return to normal. In the middle of the book, Paul goes home on leave, only to discover that his real home is now with his friends on the front.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Analytical Essay on The Fire On The Snow :: essays research papers

Douglas Stewart’s radio play, The Fire On The Snow, first performed in 1941, presents the story of Captain Falcon Robert Scott’s tragic expedition to the South Pole. In the radio play, Stewart skilfully positions the audience to accept the dominant reading of the play by showing the dominant discourse: that heroes’ nobility depends on their action and ordinary people can become heroes too. Stewart also positions the audience by using the role of the Announcer as a mask for himself to give comments to the stages during play in lyric verse forms and factual commentary statements, and also involve the men’s dialogue. In November, 1911, Captain Falcon Robert Scott led a British team across the snows of Antarctica, striving to be the first to attain the South Pole. After marching and hauling over 800 miles, Scott and his four comrades reached the Pole in Jan, 1912, only to find out that Amundsen’s team (five Norwegians) had achieved the goal a month earlier. Scott, Wilson, Oates, Bowers and Evans, all perished in the ice on the return journey, but became national heroes, because of the selfless, sacrifice for the others and their heroic action to the Pole. Their race against the Norwegians to be the first reaches the Pole, laid the foundation of one of Antarctica’s most tragic legends. Due the time frame when Stewart was writing the play, which is during the Second World War, he effectively positions the audience to sympathize with the tragic death of the heroes in the play by reinforcing the main discourses of both personal and national sacrifices of ordinary men. Many dramatic techniques were used to enhance the audience’s awareness of the struggles that the men had been through. One of the major techniques is Stewart’ positioning of the audience involved the use of lyric verse to assist the audience to create the visual and auditory imagery and to feel the harsh atmosphere that the play has created; and also through some technical devices such as the metaphors, similes, alliteration, assonance, repetition and rhyme within the verses, as found in the texts of the Announcer. Stewart has successfully used these techniques to reflect the feelings deep inside the men’s struggle of physical difficulties against the nature of freezing snows an d blizzards; emotional struggle of depression, pressure and disappointment; and Stewart symbolizes â€Å"The Fire On The Snow† as â€Å"man against snow, the spirit of man against all that conspires to defeat him†. Analytical Essay on "The Fire On The Snow" :: essays research papers Douglas Stewart’s radio play, The Fire On The Snow, first performed in 1941, presents the story of Captain Falcon Robert Scott’s tragic expedition to the South Pole. In the radio play, Stewart skilfully positions the audience to accept the dominant reading of the play by showing the dominant discourse: that heroes’ nobility depends on their action and ordinary people can become heroes too. Stewart also positions the audience by using the role of the Announcer as a mask for himself to give comments to the stages during play in lyric verse forms and factual commentary statements, and also involve the men’s dialogue. In November, 1911, Captain Falcon Robert Scott led a British team across the snows of Antarctica, striving to be the first to attain the South Pole. After marching and hauling over 800 miles, Scott and his four comrades reached the Pole in Jan, 1912, only to find out that Amundsen’s team (five Norwegians) had achieved the goal a month earlier. Scott, Wilson, Oates, Bowers and Evans, all perished in the ice on the return journey, but became national heroes, because of the selfless, sacrifice for the others and their heroic action to the Pole. Their race against the Norwegians to be the first reaches the Pole, laid the foundation of one of Antarctica’s most tragic legends. Due the time frame when Stewart was writing the play, which is during the Second World War, he effectively positions the audience to sympathize with the tragic death of the heroes in the play by reinforcing the main discourses of both personal and national sacrifices of ordinary men. Many dramatic techniques were used to enhance the audience’s awareness of the struggles that the men had been through. One of the major techniques is Stewart’ positioning of the audience involved the use of lyric verse to assist the audience to create the visual and auditory imagery and to feel the harsh atmosphere that the play has created; and also through some technical devices such as the metaphors, similes, alliteration, assonance, repetition and rhyme within the verses, as found in the texts of the Announcer. Stewart has successfully used these techniques to reflect the feelings deep inside the men’s struggle of physical difficulties against the nature of freezing snows an d blizzards; emotional struggle of depression, pressure and disappointment; and Stewart symbolizes â€Å"The Fire On The Snow† as â€Å"man against snow, the spirit of man against all that conspires to defeat him†.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Ethical Issues in Management Essay

Every so often we hear the phrase â€Å"Business is business and a cup of tea is a cup of tea†. The contemporary business managers think quite on the contrary. Morals and ethics are the new paradigm and have taken the driving seat in the day to day working of the Management. Ethics contains code of conduct for a person to blend with others keeping in view the righteousness and goodness of the trade; whereas, morals are not primarily written but acted upon by most of society with rectitude. The modern manager faces several issues on the moral and ethical front as more teamwork is required to accomplish collective goals. Fraud, discrimination, nepotism, false marketing in advertorial manner is the name of the game for unethical pseudo professionals and to cope with them always remain a challenge for the socially and ethically responsible manager. The moral values of a professional lie deep within, starting with the core communications between his superiors, peers and subordinates. The levelheaded working style of a manager speaks volume of not only his good ethical behavior but also keen sense of judgment and ability to lead his subordinates in a fair and square manner. An ethically responsible manager not only tells people what to do but shows them how to do it. A Manager must be the role model to other employees of the company; therefore, he is accountable for the training and guidance of his coworkers and associates. The management must device an ethical education management and assessment of behavioral integrity of the employees to extract more productivity (Wankel, 2011). It is rightly said that â€Å"Charity begins at home†, the same is applied to morals of the management. Ethically responsible management practices enforced by a company ensure that the company declines any shady business practices and eventually fraudulent functioning of the employees. The old business model has drastically changed over the years as accountability and transparency have become norms of progressive business (Carroll, 2012). In this context, the burden on the shoulders of whistles blowers have increased radically. They should be encouraged to report organizational misconduct in any form or manifestation. It is the responsibility of the management to encourage its employees to report any fraud or delinquency. Fortification of the whistle blower from coworkers is the responsibility of the company also which in return shall endorse the trust of the employees on the management. There are many example of ethical dilemma which arises due to the fact that the people in power not realize the repercussion of their decisions. Although society gives so much for the business to prosper, mostly none is returned to the society. A classical example would be the industrial waste coming out of a process industry which gravely affects the flora and fauna of the milieu. The decision of the management to spill industrial drainage without treatment is a solemn ethical breach. The environmental agencies have formalized various codes and standards like OSHAS which should have been followed prior to any drainage of detrimental waste water. Ethically responsible management practices and social issues bear close rapport. Hence the management must always have an insight to resolve these issues as they are always involved in dealing with the community directly or indirectly related to the business. The managers may have to take stern decisions to alleviate unethical demeanor yet it is bound to return back in folds.

The Impact of Training and Development on the Employees

THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE EMPLOYEES OF THE INSURANCE SECTOR IN JORDAN THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine the procedures of training and development in the insurance sector and its effect on the quality of service and the degree of commitment from the employees to their organizations as it is a very essential subject since Training and Development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities.The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers , All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times. This can only be achieved through employee training and development.Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation and retention. There is no doubt that a well-trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties, so our main focus about the practises of training and development in the insurance sector as it is a very important service sector .And to study the relationship between training and development with job satisfaction and morale among employees , inter personal relationship and customer satisfaction , employee motivation, efficiencies in processes, financial gain , capacity to adopt new technologies and methods , innovation in strategies and products , employee turnover , company image and productivity. METHODOLOGY:We are going to examine two of the most well-known companies in Jordan (Arab insurance company and Jordanian insurance company) through a qualitative research , data will be collected through a couple of interviews with some of the employees of the two companies from many managerial levels and by gathering pr imary information through literature review from recent journal papers and books. GROUP MEMBERS: * Sara khano * Bashar Kafafi * Lama Daas * Eman Khalil * Shireen Shakaa

Friday, August 16, 2019

Ancient Greek Theatre Essay

In this essay I’m going to be writing about Ancient Greek Theatre the origins of it and how effects the modern world Theatre. The question I’m going to answer in this essay is how did Greek Theatre represent Greek culture? I’m going to use a variety of sources in this essay to provide historic information about Ancient Greek Theatre. I’m also going to look into the culture’s practices of citizenship, philosophies, gender, faiths, or origin myths. To begin with I’m going to start with the origins of how theatre started. Western Theatre was born in Ancient Greece in between 600 and 200 BC. Ancient Greek Theatre was a mixture of myths, philosophies, social commentary, dance, music and etc. But it begins as a religious ceremony. The Ancient Athenians created a theatre culture whose form, technique and terminology have lasted two millennia, and they created plays that are still considered among the greatest works of world drama. Athenians plays fo cused on the God Dionysus, which was a God of many things including fertility, agriculture, and sexuality. Athenians plays were legendary and were known to be the greatest works of world drama. The Athenians created the world of tragedy’s in plays which is a common concept in plays in the modern day world. Tragedy derived from the word tragos which meant goat and ode which means songs it was meant to teach religious lessons. Tragedies were viewed as ritual purifications. It dictated how people should behave and it also inquired free thought, in Athens it brought radical ideas of democracy, philosophy, mathematics and arts. It boasted philosophers like Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Democritus. The traditional tragedy in Aeschylus’ time (circa 475 BC) consisted of the following parts the prologue which described the situation and the set, and then there was parados an ode song that the chorus would sing when they made their entrance. Then there were the five dramatic scenes and lastly the exodus which is the climax and the conclusion. Around 484 BC there was a new playwright named Aeschylus which turned the dithyramb into drama. Aeschylus most prevalent work was The Oresteia. Aeschylus makes a point that has been used by Historians, Dramatists, Psychologists and Crime Writers; that the root of evil and suffering is usually human arrogance. In 468 BC Aeschylus was defeated and then there competition was Sophocles. Sophocles contributed the addition of a third actor and an emphasis on drama between humans rather than between humans and gods. Sophocles’ plays are about the folly of arrogance and the wisdom of accepting fate. Sophocles believed in the Greek gods, but his plays are covered with existential insights that have been pronounced many times since. Euripides was popularity surpassed Sophocles and Aeschylus. His plays were about real people he placed peasants alongside princes and gave their emotions equal weight. Tragedy’s wasn’t the only theatre in Athens there was also Comedy. Greek Comedy’s had two periods which was Old Comedy and New Comedy. In the comedies they used three actors a chorus who sang, danced and sometimes participated in the dialogue. The New Comedy was more aimed at the common people than the religious lessons. Menander was the creator of most of the popular comedy playwrights in that era. His characters wore classic models and the style he used created in emphasis on mistaken identity, romance and situational humor became the model for succeeding comedy, from the Romans to Shakespeare to Broadway. There were rules that they had to follow in theatre which was called the three unities. The three unities were time, place and action. The unity of time limits the duration of an action roughly, of a single day. The unit of place makes sure all actions were located in one place. The unit of subject represents every aspect of a play and how it relates to one topic. One must remember that Aristotle was providing these ground rules during the fourth century B.C.E. At the time, plays were performed outdoors and the use of multiple settings would be expensive and complicated to produce. The audience would likely get confused in the process of changing sets and props. Greek theatre had a major impact on the modern world because tragedies are used in most of the plays in the modern world. For example, The Death of a Salesman’s is a tragedy because the dad ends up dying at the end of the play. Tragedy’s gives modern day plays their edge; they are called dramas in the modern world. The definition of a Drama is A prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story, that is intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and ac tion. This describes what the Greeks believed tragedy’s was. Then they helped the modern theatre world evolve into a greater aspect of life. The Greeks had men playing all the roles in the plays and had chorus was used to tell the stories and maintain a since of ceremony and ritual. It established the mood though rhythmic chanting and dancing. It connected the artist by making responses and asking questions. In modern theatre we used dancing and chanting and chorus for our musical plays and for the regular plays we use music to connect the audience with the mood of the play. Also instead of a chorus to narrate the play we just use a regular person to narrate the play. The answer to the question how did Greek Theatre represent Greek culture? Is Greek Theatre showed how the Athens was very religious and they used the tragedies of theatre to tell people how to ask and also give people a voice. Greek Theatre playwrights represented how the society behaved in that era. They used religious traditions as a main part of the plays which slowly disappeared later on the era and culture transformed into playwrights that dealt with common people instead of Gods and how you should worship them. Greek theatre was greatly influential in the modern world and the plays are still used today. Bibliography 1. Ceehorn, Ashley. What Are the Three Unities in Greek Theater? Read more: What Are the Three Unities in Greek Theater? | N.p.: eHow Contributor, 2011. 2. Http:// 2004. 3. Girard, Phyllis M. Greek Theatre: A Reflection of Ancient Greek Society (A Program Alternative for High School Gifted Students). Programs for Gifted Students. N.p.: Guides – Classroom – Teacher, 1978. 4. Phillips, K. Ancient Greek Theatre. 2000.